Pragmatic or Absolute Establishment of Philosophy


At the foundation of systematic thinking lie decisive assumptions that cannot be articulated and treated in a theoretical manner. Nonetheless, they are settled practically and metaphorically to orient and provoke the systematic attempts of philosophy. This field of non-theoretical assumptions is the theme of this paper. In the following, I articulate one specific metaphorical and practical answer that defies theoretical and systematic treatment. While it is among the most fundamental and fatal answers that can ever be ventured in the entire field of systematic thinking, they cannot occupy center-stage in theoretical thinking. The problematic concerns the pragmatic or absolute establishment of the edifice of philosophy. In the following, I try to portray a fundamental but irresolvable conflict in a back-and-forth movement between rival answers given to this problematic. This investigation concludes by emphasizing the irremediable failure to settle, once and for all, the conflict portrayed between the two opposed designations of philosophy in principle.


pragmatic standpoint, absolute, metaphorology, epistemological standpoint, intellectualism

How to cite:

Safabakhsh, Ebrahim. “Pragmatic Or Absolute Establishment of Philosophy.” Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 7, no. 4 (2023):  40-54. https://doi.org/10.14394/eidos.jpc.2023.0032.


Ebrahim Safabakhsh
Department of Philosophy, University of Tehran
University of Tehran, Enqelab-e- Eslami Ave., Tehran, Iran


Auxier, Randall E. Time, Will, and Purpose: Living Ideas from the Philosophy of Josiah Royce. Chicago: Open Court, 2013.

Blumenberg, Hans. Paradigms for a Metaphorology. Translated by Robert Savage. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 2010. https://doi.org/10.7591/j.ctt7v7cn.

Boodin, John Elof. “What Pragmatism Is and Is Not.” The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Methods 6, no. 23 (November 11, 1909): 627-35. https://doi.org/10.2307/2010640.

Dewey, John. Experience and Nature. Vol. 1: 1925 of The Later Works, 1925-1953. Edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1981.

Dewey, John. “The Intellectualist Criterion of Truth.” In Vol. 4: 1907-1909, of The Middle Works, 1899-1924, edited by Jo Ann Boydston, 50-75. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2008.

Dewey, John. “The Quest for Certainty.” In Vol. 4: 1929 of The Later Works, 1925-1953, edited by Jo Ann Boydston. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 1984.

Dewey, John. “Some Implications of Anti-intellectualism.” In Vol. 4: 1907-1909, of The Middle Works, 1899-1924, edited by Jo Ann Boydston, 86-90. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University, 2008.

Dewey, John. “Studies in Logical Theory.” In Vol. 2: 1902-1903, of The Middle Works, 1899-1924, edited by Jo Ann Boydston with an Introduction by Sidney Hook, 293-378. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press, 2008.

Dilthey, Wilhelm. Introduction to the Human Sciences. Translated by Rudolf Makkreel, and Frithjof Rudi. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1991.

Husserl, Edmund. Cartesian Meditations, An Introduction to Phenomenology. Translated by Dorion Cairns. Dodrecht: Springer, 1960. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-017-4952-7.

Jackman, Henry. “James’s Pragmatic Maxim and the Elasticity of Meaning.” In The Jamesian Mind, edited by Sarin Marchetti, 274-84. New York: Routledge, 2022. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429029639-27.

James, William. Pragmatism: A New Way for Some Old Ways of Thinking, Popular Lectures on Philosophy. London: Longmans Green and Co., 1907. https://doi.org/10.1037/10851-000.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by Werner Pluhar. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1996.

Kögler, Hans-Herbert. “Dialogue on Dialogue.” In The Gadamerian Mind. Edited by Theodore George and Gert-Jan van der Heiden. New York: Routledge, 2022. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780429202544-27.

Makkreel, Rudolf A. Dilthey: The Philosopher of the Human Studies. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1975.

Peirce, Charles S. “Pragmatism and Pragmaticism”. In Vol. 5 of Collected Papers, edited by Charles Hartshorne and Paul Weiss. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 1960.

Perry, Ralph Barton. “The Ego-centric Predicament.” The Journal of Philosophy, Psychology and Scientific Method 7, no. 1 (January 6, 1910): 5-14. https://doi.org/10.2307/2011576.

Open Access Statement:

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author, as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Submitting a text to Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture means that the author agrees with the general conditions of this license. The author does and will maintain copyrights and publishing rights for his/her article without any restrictions.