2019-04Forum
Education, Philosophy, and Morality: Virtue Philosophy in Kant

Abstract:

This article investigates the interrelated roles of education, morality, and philosophy in Kant as a response to the transactional view of humanity promoted by the spirit of capitalism, known as the “capital form.” This article investigates the effect of the capital form upon educational institutions and self-cultivation, or Bildung. Kant’s views on the role of education in moral development provide a path forward in the reconstitution of Bildung within persons. I argue that education serves a moral role in Kant, helping humanity achieve enlightenment – in direct contrast to the “un-enlightened” and uncultivated self created by the capital form. I turn to Kant’s views on education, focusing on the role of philosophy in moral development, and the cultivation of virtues such as modesty and appropriate self-love. Finally, I turn to contemporary pedagogical theory, providing practical examples of teaching techniques to help liberate students from their “self-imposed minority.”

Keywords:

Kant, morality, virtue, education, pedagogy, enlightenment, higher education, capitalism, consumerism

How to cite:

Mueller, Laura. “Education, Philosophy, and Morality: Virtue Philosophy in Kant.” Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 3, no. 4(10) (2019): 114-137. https://doi.org/10.14394/eidos.jpc.2019.0045.

Author:

Laura Mueller
Department of Philosophy
Gustavus Adolphus College
https://orcid.org/0000-0001-8718-441X
mueller.laura.j@gmail.com

References:

Allison, Henry. Kant’s Theory of Freedom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.

Arendt, Hannah. “Thinking and Moral Considerations: A Lecture.” Social Research 38, no. 3 (Autumn 1971): 417-446.

Baxley, Anne Margaret. “Does Kantian Virtue Amount to More Than Incontinence?” The Review of Metaphysics 56 (March 2003): 659-586.

Bunge, Nancy. “Students Evaluating Teachers Doesn’t Just Hurt Teachers. It Hurts Students.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November 27, 2018.

Cohen, Alix. “The Role of Feelings in Kant’s Moral Education.” Journal of Philosophy of Education 50, no. 4 (2016): 511-523. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-9752.12161.

Crowther, Paul. The Kantian Sublime. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1989.

DeSantis, Nick. “U. of Colorado Removes Philosophy Chair Amid Finding of Sexual Harassment.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. Jan. 31, 2014.

Fishman, Stephen and Lucille McCarthy. John Dewey and the Challenge of Classroom Practice. New York: Teachers College Press, 1988.

Flaherty, Colleen. “Another Harasser Resigns.” Inside Higher Ed. November 4, 2015. https://www.insidehighered.com.

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. Translated by Myra Bergman Ramos. New York: Bloomsbury Academic, 2016.

Gentry, Jeff. “Why Grades Still Matter.” The Chronicle of Higher Education. November 20, 2018.

Grenberg, Jeanine. “Autonomous moral education is Socratic moral education: The Import of repeated activity in moral education out of evil and into virtue.” Educational Philosophy and Theory 51, no. 13 (2019): 1335-1346. https://doi.org/10.1080/00131857.2018.1487285.

Grenberg, Jeanine. Kant and the Ethics of Humility: A Story of Dependence, Corruption and Virtue. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2005. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511627859.

Hadot, Pierre. Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault. Translated by Michael Chase. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing, 1995.

Hill, Jr., Thomas E. “Kantian Virtue and ‘Virtue Ethics.’” In Kant’s Ethics of Virtue. Edited by Monika Betzler, 29-60. New York: DeGruyter, 2008.

Herz, Marcus. “From Marcus Herz. September 11, 1770.” In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Correspondence. Edited and translated by Arnulf Zweig, 10:99-10:102. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Horn, Christoph. “The Concept of Love in Kant’s Virtue Ethics.” In Kant’s Ethics of Virtue. Edited by Monika Betzler, 147-174. New York: DeGruyter, 2008.

Humboldt, Wilhelm von. “On the Spirit and the Organizational Framework of Intellectual Institutions in Berlin” [in “University Reform in Germany”], Minerva 8 ([1900]/1970), 242-267. https://doi.org/10.1007/BF01553214.

Johnson, Robert N. “Was Kant a Virtue Ethicist?” In Kant’s Ethics of Virtue. Edited by Monika Betzler, 61-76. New York: DeGruyter, 2008.

Kant, Immanuel. “An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?” In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Practical Philosophy. Edited and translated by Mary J. Gregor, 12-22. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Judgment. Translated by Werner Pluhar. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1987.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Practical Reason. Translated by Lewis White Beck. Liberal Arts Press, 1956.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Practical Reason. In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Practical Philosophy. Edited and translated by Mary J. Gregor, 134-271. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511813306.

Kant, Immanuel. Critique of Pure Reason. Translated by Werner Pluhar. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1996.

Kant, Immanuel.  “Dohna-Wundlacken Logic.” In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Lectures on Logic. Edited and translated by J. Michael Young, 425-516. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992.

Kant, Immanuel. “Groundwork of the Metaphysics of Morals.” In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Practical Philosophy. Edited and translated by Mary J. Gregor, 38-108. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Kant, Immanuel. Lectures on Ethics. Vol. 2. Cambridge University Press, 2001.

Kant, Immanuel. “Lectures on Pedagogy.” In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Anthropology, History, and Education. Edited by Günter Zöller, 434-485. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2007.

Kant, Immanuel. “M. Immanuel Kant’s Announcement of the Programme of His Lectures for the Winter Semester 1765-1766 (1765).” In Theoretical Philosophy 1755-1770. Translated and edited by David Walford and Ralf Meerbote, 287-300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511840180.035.

Kant, Immanuel. Philosophical Correspondence, 1759-1799. Edited and translated by Arnulf Zweig. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967.

Kant, Immanuel. “Metaphysics of Morals.” In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Practical Philosophy. Edited and translated by Mary J. Gregor, 354-603. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511809644.

Kant, Immanuel. “To Johann Gotthelf Lindner. October 28, 1759.” In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Correspondence. Edited and translated by Arnulf Zweig, 10:18-10:20. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Kant, Immanuel. “To Marcus Herz, Early April 1778,” In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Correspondence. Edited and translated by Arnulf Zweig, 10:231-10:232. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1999.

Kant, Immanuel. “Review of Schulz’s ‘Attempt at an Introduction to a Doctrine of Morals for All Human Beings.’” In The Cambridge Edition of the Works of Immanuel Kant: Practical Philosophy. Edited and translated by Mary J. Gregor, 2-10. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996.

Kuehn, Manfred. “Kant on Education, Anthropology, and Ethics.” In Kant and Education: Interpretations and Commentary. Edited by Klas Roth and Chris Surprenant, 55-68. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Moran, Kate. “Can Kant Have an Account of Moral Education?” Journal of Philosophy of Education 43, no. 4 (2009): 471-484. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9752.2009.00721.x.

Mueller, Laura J. “Pure Reason’s Autonomy: Sensus Communis in Reason’s Self-Critique.” Epoché  22, no. 2 (Spring 2018): 391-411. https://doi.org/10.5840/epoche201818108.

Newson, Janice A. “Disrupting the ‘Student as Consumer’ Model: The New Emancipatory Project.” International Relations 18, no. 2 (2004): 227-239. https://doi.org/10.1177/0047117804042674.

“Philosophy as a Way of Life.”  University of Notre Dame. 2019. https://philife.nd.edu/.

Plato. Plato: Complete Works. Edited by John M. Cooper. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing Company, 1997.

Rudisill, John. “The Transition from Studying Philosophy to Doing Philosophy.” Teaching Philosophy 34, no. 3 (September 2011): 241-271. https://doi.org/10.5840/teachphil201134332.

Schaffer, Birgit. “Changing the Definition of Education. On Kant’s Educational Paradox Between Freedom and Restraint.” Studies in Philosophy and Education 33 (2014): 5-21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11217-013-9357-4.

Sorkin, David. “Wilhelm Von Humboldt: The Theory and Practice of Self-Formation (Bildung), 1791-1810.” Journal of the History of Ideas 44, no. 1 (Jan.-Mar. 1983): 55-73. https://doi.org/10.2307/2709304.

Schuessler, Jennifer. “A Star Philosopher Falls, and a Debate over Sexism is Set Off.” The New York Times. August 2, 2013.

Schwitzgebel, Eric. “Acting Contrary to Our Professed Beliefs, or Occurrent Judgment and Dispositional Belief.” Pacific Philosophical Quarterly 91 (2010): 531-553. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0114.2010.01381.x.

Schwitzgebel, Eric and Fiery Cushman. “Expertise in Moral Reasoning? Order Effects on Moral Judgment in Professional Philosophers and Non-Philosophers.” Mind & Language 27, no. 2 (April 2012): 135-153. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1468-0017.2012.01438.x.

Sensen, Oliver. Kant on Human Dignity. New York: DeGruyter, 2011. https://doi.org/10.1515/9783110267167.

Shor, Ira. “Educating the Educators: A Freirean Approach to the Crisis in Teacher Education.” In Freire for the Classroom: A Sourcebook for Liberatory Teaching, edited by Ira Shor, 7-32. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1987.

Stikkers, Kenneth W. “Emancipation from Capital.” Pragmatism Today 6, no. 2 (2015): 87-96.

Stikkers, Kenneth W. “Growth and Well-Being, Economic and Human.” Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 1, no. 2 (2017): 54-67. https://doi.org/10.26319/2915.

Stikkers, Kenneth W. “Redefining the Meaning of ‘Morality’: A Chapter in the Cultural Politics Capitalism,” Pragmatism Today 7, no. 2 (2016): 42-47.

Surprenant, Chris. “Kant’s Contribution to Moral Education.” In Kant and Education: Interpretations and Commentary, edited by Klas Roth and Chris Surprenant, 1-12. New York: Routledge, 2012.

Wallerstein, Nina. “Problem-Posing Education: Freire’s Method for Transformation.” In Freire for the Classroom: A Sourcebook for Liberatory Teaching, edited by Ira Shor, 33-44. Portsmouth, NH: Boynton/Cook, 1987.

Open Access Statement:

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author, as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Submitting a text to Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture means that the author agrees with the general conditions of this license. The author does and will maintain copyrights and publishing rights for his/her article without any restrictions.