2020-02Thematic Section
Expertise and Expert Knowledge in Social and Procedural Entanglement

Abstract:

The paper analyzes, on the basis of Ryle’s concepts of knowledge that and knowledge how, both objectified (verbalized, justified and verified) forms of expert knowledge and the performative (procedural, interactional) nature of expertise. Both theoretical and practical aspects of the identified categories are studied from historical and social (institutional) perspectives as phenomena characteristic of post-modern information society. In virtue of the selected social examples an epistemological model of performative expert knowledge and expertise is constructed in which crucial elements are distinguished: experts’ cognitive attitudes and dispositions, intellectual skills, intuition and mistakes as well as types of interactional versus contributory expertise. Also considered are the epistemological consequences derived from the research concerning expertise in psychiatric treatment where both expert knowledge and expertise fall into line with institutional requirements (medical or juridical) as well as procedures (correspondence with facts and/or other procedures).

Keywords:

expert knowledge, expertise, interactional expertise, psychiatric expertise, epistemic value, procedures

How to cite:

Hetmański, Marek. “Expertise and Expert Knowledge in Social and Procedural Entanglement.” Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 4, no. 2 (2020):  6-22. https://doi.org/10.14394/eidos.jpc.2020.0013.

Author:

Marek Hetmański
Faculty of Philosophy and Sociology, Maria Curie-Skłodowska University
pl. Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej 4, 20-031 Lublin, Poland
https://orcid.org/0000-0003-2062-9802
marek.hetmanski@poczta.umcs.lublin.pl

References:

Chi, Michelene.T. H. “Two Approaches to the Study of Experts’ Characteristic.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, edited by K. Anders Ericssonet al., 21-30. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816796.002.

Cianciolo, Anna T., Cynthia Matthew, Robert S. Sternberg, and Richard K. Wagner. “Tacit Knowledge, Practical Intelligence, and Expertise.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, edited by K. Anders Ericsson et al., 613-632. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816796.035.

Collins, Harry. “Interactional Expertise as a Third Kind of Knowledge.” Phenomenology and the Cognitive Sciences 3, (2004): 125-143. https://doi.org/10.1023/B:PHEN.0000040824.89221.1a.

Collins, Harry, and Robert Evans. “A Sociological/Philosophical Perspective on Expertise:The Acquisition of Expertise through Socialization.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, edited by K. Anders Ericsson, Robert Hoffman, Aaron Kozbelt, and A. Mark Williams, 2-32. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2018.

Craddock, Nick, Mike Kerr, and Anita Thapar. “What is the Core Expertise of the Psychiatrist?” The Psychiatrist 34, (2010): 457-460. https://doi.org/10.1192/pb.bp.110.030114.

Ennis, Bruce, and Thomas R. Litwack. “Psychiatry and the Presumption of Expertise: Flipping Coins in the Courtroom.” California Law Review 62, no. 3 (1974): 5-31. https://doi.org/10.2307/3479746.

Ericsson, K. Anders, Neil Charness, Paul J. Feltovich, and Robert R. Hoffman, eds. The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance (1st ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816796.

Ericsson, K. Anders, Robert R. Hoffman, Aaron Kozbelt, and A. Mark Williams, eds. The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance (2nd ed.). Cambridge University Press: Cambridge, 2018. https://doi.org/10.1017/9781316480748.

Gabriel, Adel, and Claudio Violato. “Problem-Solving Strategies in Psychiatry: Differences between Experts and Novices in Diagnostic Accuracy and Reasoning.” Advances in Medical Education and Practice 4, (2013): 11-16. https://doi.org/10.2147/AMEP.S38372.

Grundmann, Richard. “The Problem of Expertise in Knowledge Society.” Minerva 55, (2017): 25-48.  https://doi.org/10.1007/s11024-016-9308-7.

Hetmański, Marek. “Expert Knowledge: Its Structure, Functions and Limits.” Studia Humana 7, no. 3 (2018): 11-20. https://doi.org/10.2478/sh-2018-0014.

Hilgartner, Stephen. Science on Stage: Expert Advice as Public Drama. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2000.

Hoffman, Richard R. “How Can Expertise Be Defined? Implications of Research from Cognitive Psychology.” In Exploring Expertise: Issues and Perspectives, edited by Robin Williams, Wendy Faulkner, and James Fleck, 81-100. New York: Macmillan, 1998. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-349-13693-3_4.

Hunt, Earl. “Expertise, Talent, and Social Encouragement.” In The Cambridge Handbook of Expertise and Expert Performance, edited by K. Anders Ericsson, et al. 31-38. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1017/CBO9780511816796.003.

Jensen, Karin, Leif Christian Lahn, and Monika Nerland. Professional Learning in the Knowledge Society. Rotterdam/Boston/Taipei: Sense Publishers, 2012. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-94-6091-994-7.   

Kołtun, Aleksandra. Can Knowledge be (a) Performative: Performativity in the Studies of Science. Lublin: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Marii Curie-Skłodowskiej, 2015.

Ryle, Gilbert. The Concept of Mind. London: Penguin Books, [1949] 1990.

Shanteau, James. “How Much Information Does an Expert Use? Is it Relevant?” Acta Psychologica 81, (1992): 75-86. https://doi.org/10.1016/0001-6918(92)90012-3.

Open Access Statement:

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author, as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Submitting a text to Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture means that the author agrees with the general conditions of this license. The author does and will maintain copyrights and publishing rights for his/her article without any restrictions.