2023-01Thematic Section
Like Marginalia in the Canon of the Oppressors: Critical Theorizing at the Margin and Attempts for Redemptive Alternatives


Bestrewn with relics of subjugation, the frameworks that hinge on social progress have failed to appraise the plight of the marginalized in the democratic discourse. This is the case in the Philippines, as in other fringed spaces caught in hegemonic world-building. In this setup, emancipation is anchored in salvific attempts – salvaging the marginalized from a messianic standpoint. This tends to produce a pejorative image of the marginalized as incapable of self-determination. I argue in a three-part discussion: (1) reexamine the locus of the margin in critical theorizing; (2) retrace the act of recognition vis-à-vis the emancipative struggle; (3) present that the lifeworld of the marginalized offers redemptive alternatives for emancipation. Further, I argue that this offers a foremost framework in critical theorizing at the margin since their situatedness affords a stance that has not formed a patina of the West but is primarily informed by their rich local periphery.


critical theory, marginalization, emancipation, redemptive alternative, indigenous, margin

How to cite:

Villacampa, Renz M. “Like Marginalia in the Canon of the Oppressors: Critical Theorizing at the Margin and Attempts for Redemptive Alternatives.” Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 7, no. 1 (2023):  65-80. https://doi.org/10.14394/eidos.jpc.2023.0005.


Renz M. Villacampa
Graduate School, University of Santo Tomas
España Blvd, Sampaloc, Manila, 1008 Metro Manila, Philippines;
Department of Philosophy, University of Baguio
General Luna Rd., Baguio, Benguet, Philippines


Adonis, Digna. “The Community Development Concepts of the Igorot Indigenous Peoples in Benguet, Philippines.” PhD diss., Australian Catholic University, 2011.

Bolaños, Paolo. “Critical Theory at the Margins.” Kritike 15, no. 3 (2021): 6-12. https://doi.org/10.25138/15.3/a1.

Bolaños, Paolo. “What is Critical Theory? Max Horkheimer and the Making of the Frankfurt School Tradition.” Mabini Review 2, no. 1 (2013):1-19.

Bolaños, Paolo, and Mario Wenning. “Introduction to the Kritike Special Issue: The Crisis of Critical Theory? Critical Theory From and Beyond the Margins.” Kritike 15, no. 3 (2021):1-5. https://doi.org/10.25138/15.3/ed.

Butler, Judith. Bodies That Matter: On the Discursive Limits of “Sex.” London: Routledge, 1993. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203828274.

Butler, Judith. Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity. New York: Routledge, 1990. https://doi.org/10.4324/9780203824979.

Carling, Joan. “The Cordilleran Experience.” Asia Society, September 12, 2022. https://asiasociety.org/cordillera-experience.

Casambre, Athena Lydia. A Study on Women’s Participation for Sustainable Development in the Cordillera. Manila: National Commission on the Role of Filipino Women, 1994.

Casumbal, Melissa Joan. “Unintelligible Bodies: Gender, Time, and the Political in the Philippines.” PhD diss., University of Hawaii, 2012.

Crenshaw, Kimberlé. On Intersectionality: Essential Writings. New York, NY: The New Press, 2017.

Douglas, Mary. Purity and Danger: An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo. London, UK: Ark Paperbacks, 1984.

Freire, Paulo. Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York, NY: Continuum, 1993.

Galligan, Denis James. Law in Modern Society. England: Oxford University Press, 2006. https://doi.org/10.1093/acprof:oso/9780199291830.001.0001.

Gaspar, Karl. Manobo Dreams in Arakan: A People’s Struggle to Keep their Homeland. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2011.

Habermas, Jurgen. The Theory of Communicative Action. Vol. 1, Reason and the Rationalization of Society. Translated by Thomas McCarthy. Boston, MA: Beacon Press, 1984.

Honneth, Axel. “Recognition and Moral Obligation.” Social Research 64, no. 1 (1997): 16-35.

Honneth, Axel. The Struggle for Recognition: The Moral Grammar of Social Conflicts. Translated by Joel Anderson. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press, 1995.

Killa-Malwagay, Alpine. “Two Towns Learn from Bontoc’s DRRM, Climate Change Adaptation Practices.” Baguio Herald Express Online, April 18, 2022. https://baguioheraldexpressonline.com/two-towns-learn-from-bontocs-drrm-climate-change-adaptation-practices/.

Ocay, Jeffry. “The Peasant Movement and the Great Refusal in the Philippines: Situating Critical Theory at the Margins.” Kritike 12, no. 3 (2019): 43-67. https://doi.org/10.25138/12.3a3.

Ocay, Jeffry. “Philosophy at the Margins: Exploring the Philosophy of Work of the Elderly People in some Remote Areas of Negros Oriental.” Social Ethics Society Journal of Applied Philosophy 1, no. 1 (2015): 1-17.

Pada, Roland Theuas. “Reification as a Normative Condition of Recognition.” Philosophia 18, no. 1 (2017): 18-27.

Pilapil, Renante. Recognition: Examining Identity Struggles. Quezon City: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2015.

Prill-Brett, June. “Gender Relations and Gender Issues on Resource Management in the Central Cordillera, Northern Philippines.” Review of Women’s Studies 14, no. 1 (2004): 1-29.

Rodriguez, Agustin Martin. Governing the Other: Exploring the Discourse of Democracy in a Multiverse of Reason. Quezon City, Manila: Ateneo de Manila University Press, 2009.

Rodriguez, Agustin Martin. “Problematizing Critical Theory: Arriving at a More Critical Critical Theory.” Kritike 12, no. 3 (2019): 8-12. https://doi.org/10.25138/12.3.a1.

Wolfe, Patrick. “Settler Colonialism and the Elimination of the Native.” Journal of Genocide Research 8, no. 4 (2006): 387-409. https://doi.org/10.1080/14623520601056240.

Yocogan-Diano, Vernie. “In Praise of the Extraordinary Indigenous Women of the Cordillera.” Women Writing Women, November 3, 2020. https://womenwritingwomen.com/2020/11/03/in-praise-of-the-extraordinary-indigenous-women-of-the-cordillera/.

Open Access Statement:

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author, as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Submitting a text to Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture means that the author agrees with the general conditions of this license. The author does and will maintain copyrights and publishing rights for his/her article without any restrictions.

situs slothttps://disdukcapil.salatiga.go.id/ngacor/slot gacortotomacau4dsitus totositus totositus totoslot gacorsitus togelsitus totoagen totositus togelsitus totositus togel resmislot gacorslot gacorslot gacorbento4d