2018-04Thematic Section
Can a Robot Be Grateful? Beyond Logic, Towards Religion


Philosophy should seriously take into account the presence of computers. Computer enthusiasts point towards a new Pythagoreanism, a far reaching generalization of logical or mathematical views of the world. Most of us try to retain a belief in the permanence of human superiority over robots. To justify this superiority, Gödel’s theorem has been invoked, but it can be demonstrated that this is not sufficient. Other attempts are based on the scope and fullness of our perception and feelings. Yet the fact is that more and more can be computer simulated. In order to secure human superiority over robots, reference to the realm of human relations and attitudes seems more promising. Insights provided by philosophy of dialogue can help. They suggest an ultimate extension of the Turing test. In addition, it seems that in order to justify the belief in human superiority one must rely on the individual experiences that indicate a realm that is not merely subjective. It makes sense to call it religious.


computer science, robot, Gödel’s theorem, digitalization, Pythagoreanism, context, Church’s Thesis, philosophy of dialogue, gratitude, prayer

How to cite:

Krajewski, Stanisław. “Can a Robot Be Grateful? Beyond Logic, Towards Religion.” Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture 2, no. 4(6) (2018): 4–13. https://doi.org/10.26319/6912.


Stanisław Krajewski
Institute of Philosophy, University of Warsaw


Buber, Martin. I and THOU. Translated by Walter Kaufmann. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1937/1970.

Buber, Martin. “The History of Dialogical Principle.” In Between Man and Man. New York and London: Routledge, 1947/2004.

Dreyfus, Hubert. What Computers Can’t Do: The Limits of Artificial Intelligence. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1972.

Dreyfus, Hubert. What Computers Still Can’t Do: A Critique of Artificial Reason. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992.

Gödel, Kurt. “Some Basic Theorems on the Foundations of Mathematics and Their Implications.” In Kurt Gödel: Collected Works, Volume III, edited by Solomon Feferman et al., 304–323. New York, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1951/1995.

Krajewski, Stanisław. “On Gödel’s Theorem and Mechanism: Inconsistency or Unsoundness is Unavoidable in Any Attempt to ‘Out-Gödel’ the Mechanist.” Fundamenta Informaticae 81, 1–3 (2007): 173–181.

Krajewski, Stanisław. “Penrose’s Metalogical Argument is Unsound.” In Road to Reality with Roger Penrose, edited by James Ladyman, Stuart Presnell, Gordon McCabe, Michał Eckstein, Sebastian J. Szybka, 87–104. Kraków: Copernicus Center Press, 2015.

Krajewski, Stanisław. Twierdzenie Gödla i jego interpretacje filozoficzne – od mechanicyzmu do postmodernizmu. Warszawa: IFiS PAN, 2003.

Krajewski, Stanisław. „The Ultimate Strengthening of Turing’s Test?” Semiotica 188, no. 1/4 (2012): 203–218.

Krajewski, Stanisław. What I Owe to Interreligious Dialogue and Christianity, 71–127. Kraków: The Judaica Foundation, 2017.

Lanier, Jaron. “One Half a Manifesto.” In The New Humanists: Science at the Edge, edited by John Brockman. New York: Barnes & Noble, 2003.

Putnam, Hilary. Renewing philosophy. Boston: Harvard University Press, 1992.

Rotman, Brian. Ad Infinitum… The Ghost in Turing’s Machine: Taking God out of Mathematics and Putting the Body Back In. Stanford University Press, 1993.

Wolfram, Stephen. A New Kind of Science. Champaign, ILL: Wolfram Media, 2002.

Open Access Statement:

This is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles, or use them for any other lawful purpose, without asking prior permission from the publisher or the author, as long as the author and original source are properly cited. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License. Submitting a text to Eidos. A Journal for Philosophy of Culture means that the author agrees with the general conditions of this license. The author does and will maintain copyrights and publishing rights for his/her article without any restrictions.